Nesquehoning is a borough in Carbon County, Pennsylvania, United States. The population was 3,288 at the 2000 census. The name is of Native American origin, commonly believed to signify "narrow valley;" however native language scholars translate the name as "at the black lick" or "at the dirty lick," referring to mineral licks frequented by deer or other animals. Nesquehoning was established as a result of the anthracite coal mining industry. It was incorporated as a borough in 1974, having previously been a part of Mauch Chunk Township.